What is tashahhud in prayer? The definition of the tashahhud( Arabic : التشهد ) is dhikr which includes the greeting and the two testimonies. Testifying that there is no Allah but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, the Messenger of Allah- may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him – taught him to his nation; To bring it when sitting in prayer.

How do you sit Tashahhud?

 It is sunnah for the one praying during the two tashahhud prayers to go to bed during the first tashahhud session, and to sleep; It is erecting the right leg and brushing the left leg, and sitting on it.

As for the tashahhud second part-session, it is Sunnah for him, It is the brushing of the right leg, and the insertion of the left leg between the thigh and the leg of the right leg.

As for the prayer with one tashahhud; like the two rak’ahs of prayer; It is desirable for the worshipper to fall asleep during the tashahhud session, and there is nothing wrong with him sitting as he is able to if he is not able to sleep; Because of pain in the foot, or enlarging the body, and so on.

Placing the hands during the tashahhud                 

The position of the hands during the tashahhud are two characteristics; The first is for the worshipper to place his right palm on his right thigh, and his left palm on his left thigh, pointing with the forefinger. It is for him to place his right palm on his right knee, pointing with his forefinger, place his left palm on his left knee, and feed his knee with his hand.

What do you say at Tashahhud?

al tashahhud
al tashahhud

The worshiper says in the tashahhud in two-way prayer one of the well-known forms of tashahhud, including: (التحيّاتُ للهِ والصلواتِ والطيباتُ، السلامُ عليكَ أيّها النبي ورحمةُ اللهِ وبركاتهُ، السلامُ علينا وعلى عبادِ اللهِ الصالحينَ، أشهد أن لا إله إلا اللهُ وأشهدُ أن محمدا عبدهُ ورسولهُ)

We would mention tashahhud in English also: Greetings to Allah and prayers and good things, peace be upon you, O Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and blessings, peace be upon us and the righteous creatures of Allah, I bear witness that there is no Allah but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. And this is a tashahhud full.

What do you say first in Tashahhud?

Then he prays to the Messenger – may Allah bless him and grant him peace – and says: 

(اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ علَى مُحَمَّدٍ وعلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كما صَلَّيْتَ علَى إبْرَاهِيمَ، وعلَى آلِ إبْرَاهِيمَ، إنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ، اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ علَى مُحَمَّدٍ وعلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كما بَارَكْتَ علَى إبْرَاهِيمَ، وعلَى آلِ إبْرَاهِيمَ إنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ).

The diversification between the forms of the tashahhud from the Sunnah, and from the Sunnah also the diversification between the forms of prayer for the Prophet, may Allah prayers and peace be upon him, where there were several formulas for praying on him, and seeking refuge with Allah from four before the salutation of prayer; From the torment of Hell, the torment of the grave, the trials of life and death, and the evil of the Antichrist, and this seeking refuge is a Sunnah according to the majority of scholars, contrary to those who enjoin it.

Placing the fingers during the Tashahhud

Placing the fingers during the Tashahhud are two characteristics: The first is clenching all the fingers of the right hand, pointing with the forefinger, and extending the left hand, and the second is clenching the pinky and ring fingers, circling the thumb with the middle finger, pointing with the index finger, and extending the left hand. 

Is Tashahhud obligatory?

It varies according to its position in the prayer as follows: The ruling on the middle tashahhud is the view of the majority of jurists from Imam Abu Hanifa, Malik, and al-Shafi’i to say that it is a sunnah in prayer, and as for Imam Ahmad, he said that it is obligatory, so whoever leaves it in prayer by mistake or intentionally, his prayer is It is correct according to the majority, except that he must perform the prostration of forgetfulness.

In the event of forgetting and then remembering it while he is closer to the earth, he should return and recite the tashahhud, and sit down for the prostration of forgetfulness at the end of the prayer; And that is following the example of an act of the Messenger of Allah  – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – and whoever forgets it and does not mention it, except after starting to recite the third rak’ah, then he must continue his prayer, and not return to performing it, and prostrate the prostration of forgetfulness at the end of the prayer and before the delivery.

The rule of the last tashahhud

The ruling on the final tashahhud is obligatory according to the opinion of most scholars. Among them are Imam al-Shafi’i, Ahmad, and others, and as for Imam Abu Hanifa and Malik bin Anas, they went to say his Sunnah.

 And whoever forgets the last tashahhud, he must return to his seat and bring it, then prostrate for forgetfulness after that and give the salutation, or perform the prostration of forgetfulness after the delivery, which is It is better.

And whoever forgets the last tashahhud and completes his prayer with the tasleem, he returns to the prayer if the interval between them is short. Even if he leaves the place of his prayer, he sits for the tashahhud, then gives the salutation and prostrates for forgetfulness and this is more complete. 

What should I read in Attahiyat?

There are many formulas mentioned in the tashahhud of prayer in the honourable hadiths of the Prophet, so the Hanafis and Hanbalis chose the tashahhud of Ibn Masoud – may Allah be pleased with him – and it is the most authentic hadeeth reported in the tashahhud, and it is one of the hadiths agreed upon. Imam Malik chose the tashahhud of Umar – may Allah be pleased with him – contained in the Muwatta of Imam Malik, and the difference between these hadiths is a difference of diversity. Mention the three forms of tashahhud “

Ibn Masoud – may Allah be pleased with him – Tashahud: 

(عَلَّمَنِي رَسولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّمَ، وكَفِّي بيْنَ كَفَّيْهِ، التَّشَهُّدَ، كما يُعَلِّمُنِي السُّورَةَ مِنَ القُرْآنِ: التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ، والصَّلَوَاتُ والطَّيِّبَاتُ، السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أيُّها النبيُّ ورَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وعلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، أشْهَدُ أنْ لا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ، وأَشْهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ ورَسولُهُ وهو بيْنَ ظَهْرَانَيْنَا، فَلَمَّا قُبِضَ قُلْنَا: السَّلَامُ – يَعْنِي – علَى النبيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّمَ)، وفي رواية قال: (فإنَّكُمْ إذَا فَعَلْتُمْ ذلكَ فقَدْ سَلَّمْتُمْ علَى كُلِّ عَبْدٍ لِلَّهِ صَالِحٍ في السَّمَاءِ والأرْضِ)

And it is said by Abu Hanifa and his companions, Al-Thawri, Ahmad, Ishaq, Abu Thawr, and the majority of scholars. 

Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – Tashahud: (كانَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عليه وسلَّمَ يُعَلِّمُنَا التَّشَهُّدَ كما يُعَلِّمُنَا السُّورَةَ مِنَ القُرْآنِ فَكانَ يقولُ: التَّحِيَّاتُ المُبَارَكَاتُ، الصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ، السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أيُّها النبيُّ ورَحْمَةُ اللهِ وبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وعلَى عِبَادِ اللهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، أشْهَدُ أنْ لا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ، وأَشْهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسولُ اللَّهِ. وفي رِوَايَةِ ابْنِ رُمْحٍ: كما يُعَلِّمُنَا القُرْآنَ).

 

Ibn Omar – may Alah be blessed him – Tshahud:

(التَّحياتُ للهِ، الصَّلواتُ الطَّيِّباتُ، السَّلامُ عليك أيها النبيُّ ورحمةُ اللهِ وبركاتُه، قال: قال ابنُ عمرَ: زدتُ فيها وبركاتُه، السَّلامُ علينا وعلى عبادِ اللهِ الصَّالحينَ، أشهدُ أن لا إله إلا اللهُ، قال ابنُ عمرَ: زدتُ فيها وحدهُ لا شريك لهُ، وأشهدُ أنَّ محمدًا عبدُه ورسولُه)

Conditions for the validity of the tashahhud

 There are several conditions required for the validity of the tashahhud, the most prominent of which are the following: 

  • The pronunciation must be continuous, so the continuity of the tashahhud is required, and some consider it a Sunnah of the Sunnah. 
  • The tashahhud should be in the Arabic language if he is able and capable.
  •  It is mentioned like the rest of the dhikrs, in which the Arabic pronunciation is required.
  •  If the foreign worshiper is not able to do that, then he must translate from the aphorism. 
  • The one who is praying in it should take into account the insertion of the letter N into the letter Lam when saying that there is no Allah but Allah. 
  • To sit when saying the tashahhud. 

How to say tashahhud in Arabic?

Sitting for the first tashahhud is obligatory, and this is the view of the Hanbalis, the Hanafis, Dawood and Imam Malik in a narration from him, the majority of hadith scholars, Ibn Uthaymeen and Ibn Baz, and what indicates its obligation is that whoever left it in prayer because of forgetfulness, he must prostrate for forgetfulness to make up for it.

The command is obligatory, and the tashahhud is to say: (التَّحِيَّاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ لِلَّهِ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أيُّها النبيُّ ورَحْمَةُ اللهِ وبَرَكَاتُهُ، السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وعلَى عِبَادِ اللهِ الصَّالِحِينَ، أشْهَدُ أنْ لا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ وأَشْهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ ورَسولُهُ)، أو قول: (التحيَّاتُ للَّهِ الزَّاكياتُ للَّهِ الطَّيِّباتُ الصَّلواتُ للهِ السَّلامُ عليك أيها النبيُّ ورحمةُ اللَّهِ وبركاتُه السَّلامُ علينا وعلى عبادِ اللَّهِ الصالحين، أشهدُ أن لا إله إلا اللَّهُ وحده لا شريك له وأشهدُ أنَّ محمَّداً عبدُه ورسولُه)

What is tashahhud and tasleem?

How to recite the Tashahhud The worshiper sits after the completion of the second rak’ah as he sits between the two prostrations; i.e. if he is in bed, and he recites the Tashahhud meaning and the Abrahamic Prayer, and then gives the salutation if the prayer is twofold, or if the prayer is fourfold or three; He stops at the end of the first tashahhud. i.e. when saying: “I bear witness that there is no Allah but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger,” then rises to complete the remainder of the prayer, and sits for the last tashahhud, abandoning; That is, he erects his right foot, and brings out his left foot from under his right leg, and places his seat on the ground. As for his palms, he places them on his thighs, and he grasps the pinky and ring finger, pointing with the forefinger and moving it during supplication, and the thumb and middle are paired like a ring, and the left hand is outstretched with the fingers on the tip of his left thigh. And read the entire tashahhud. 

The scholars differed as to how the tasleem is performed. The Malikis and Shafi’is held that the salutation begins with the worshipper facing the qiblah, then he turns, and the salutation is completed with his full turn. As for the forms of delivery, they are diverse, and it is better for the worshipper to vary between them, including saying on the right and on the left: “Peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah:” or saying on the right: (the same)

What to say during tashahhud? 

We say during al tashahhud, according to the Malikis; It is what Abd al-Rahman ibn Abd al-Qar narrated: that he heard Umar ibn al-Khattab – may Allah be pleased with him – teaching people the tashahhud on the pulpit, and he was saying: التَّحيَّاتُ للهِ، الزَّاكياتُ للهِ، الصَّلَواتُ للهِ، السَّلامُ عليك أيُّها النَّبيُّ ورَحمةُ اللهِ وبَركاتُه، السَّلامُ علينا وعلى عِبادِ اللهِ الصَّالحينِ، أشهَدُ أنْ لا إلهَ إلَّا اللهُ، وأشهَدُ أنَّ محمَّدًا عبدُه ورسولُه”، وقال خليل -رحمه الله-: “اختار الإمام مالك هذا لأنه هو الذي كان عمر رضي الله عنه يعلمه للناس”.

How to say tashahhud in salat?

The formula for sending blessings upon the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, after the tashahhud according to the Malikis, and the best of these formulas are: “اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا صَلَّيْت عَلَى إبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إبْرَاهِيمَ، وَبَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ، كَمَا بَارَكْت عَلَى إبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إبْرَاهِيمَ فِي الْعَالَمِينَ إنَّك حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ”.

As for the prayer on the Prophet – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him – in the first tashahhud according to the Malikis; So they held that the first tashahhud should not be added to the tashahhud, and as for the prayer upon the Prophet – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him – in the last tashahhud, it is recommended.

.And it is desirable to supplicate after praying upon the Prophet – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him- and before the salaam of prayer, and it was also reported in the Sahih of Imam Muslim that he – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him- used to seek refuge from four things before the greeting of prayer: from the trials of life and death, and from the trials of The Antichrist and from the torment of the grave and from the torment of the Fire.

Summary 

There are many forms of tashahhud among the four schools of thought, so the Malikis went to what was narrated by our Omar ibn al-Khattab – may God be pleased with him – and the jurists differed in the ruling on the first and last tashahhud between its obligatory and Sunnah. After the tashahhud and before the salaam, it is disliked to supplicate before the tashahhud and after the imam’s salaam.

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