Surah tauba (in Arabic: سورة التوبة, At-Tawbah; meaning: The Repentance), also known as Bara’ah (in Arabic: براءة, Baraʾah; meaning: the Repudiation), is the ninth chapter of the Quran. Surah Tawbah contains 129 verses and is one of the last Medinan surahs. Surah al taubah is one of the long surahs and Al-Mathani surahs.

It comes to your mind at the beginning of Al taubah, Why Surah Taubah has no bismillah?

There are opinions about the absence of a bismillah before surah Tawbah, as they said that the basmala is security from Allah and that surah toba was revealed after Allah’s wrath on the polytheists after they broke their covenant with the Messenger and his companions – may Allah be pleased with them – and that is why the basmala was not mentioned at the beginning.

And others said that the Companions Those who compiled the Noble Qur’an were not sure whether surah At-Tawbah and Surat Al-Anfal that preceded it were two separate Surahs or if they were one Surah, so they decided to separate them, but without the Basmala. There is no basmala between them that separates them, and Allah – the Highest – knows best.

Al-Tirmidhi narrated in Al-Sunan on the authority of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: I said to Othman bin Affan: What made you Al-Anfal, which is one of the Mathani next to Al-Bara? [surah at taubah] Why did you not put a line in the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful between them when you put it at the beginning of the rest of the long seven?  Othman said: The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, used to bring down the surahs with many verses. If they were revealed, he would call his writers and say to them: Put these verses in the surah in which such-and-such is mentioned.  It was revealed. Its tales were similar to the stories mentioned in Al-Anfal, so it is believed that they are part of it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died, without making clear whether he was actually a part of it, so they were placed next to each other, and the script was in the name of Allah. It was not written between them, and it was placed [surah e taubah] in the sleepless morning [seven long surahs].

What is surah taubah about?

Surah at taubah is the only one in the Holy Qur’an that doesn’t begin with a bismillah, besides that taubah surah speaks, cares, and is concerned with Islamic sharia.

Surah At-Tawbah dealt with many topics, but it mainly presented the reality of the matter of the hypocrites, the position of the people with the Messenger of Allah in Madinah, and their behavior with him in the Battle of Tabuk.

And in surah tauba, the clear lines of the relationship of Muslims with others were drawn, and their covenants with other polytheists who began to violate these covenants were drawn.

Surah al taubah declared the innocence of the polytheists, and mentioned their attributes; From breaking pledges, malice, cunning, and plot, and distinguished between the believers and others in going out for the Battle of Tabuk, as it was forbidden for the polytheists to enter the Sacred Mosque.

And in surah Tawbah came the imposition of the tax on the People of the Book, and the encouragement to sacrifice oneself and money in the cause of Allah – the Highest – and showed their backwardness The Bedouins and the hypocrites refused to go out to jihad, and Allah mentioned their descriptions to the end of surah toba, and showed that jihad is an obligation of sufficiency.

Surah taubah meaning

Surah At-Tawbah came in its meaning that it reveals the conditions of the sects, by arguing with the unbelievers, exposing the hypocrites, and distinguishing the believers.

In At-Tawbah, Allah exposed the hypocrites and their conditions. It was stated in the owner of the Battle of Tabuk of events. The reason for calling it “al taubah”  is due to the story of the three who missed the battle at the end of surah toba and whom Allah repented of. It has other names, such as Surat Al-Bara’ and Surat Al-Muqatil.

Surah at taubah is one of the madian surahs that are concerned with sharia, and al taubah is one of the last verses that were revealed to the Messenger Muhammad. Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Al-Bara bin Azib that the last surah was revealed as Bara’ah, and Al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir narrated: The first of taubah surah was revealed to the Messenger of Allah when he returned from the Battle of Tabuk, and he sent Abu Bakr as-Siddiq as a leader on the Hajj that year, to establish the people’s rituals, and when it closed, Ali followed him Ibn Abi Talib to inform the Messenger of Allah of the rulings it contains.

Surah e taubah was revealed in the ninth year of the Hijrah, the year in which the Messenger of Allah went out to invade the Romans. And their devotion to the religion of Allah” Islam”, and a distinction between them and the hypocrites. Surah tauba is called by many names, which some commentators have reduced to fourteen names. Surah al taubah came between Surat Al-Anfal and Yunus and was revealed after Surat Al-Ma’idah.

Surah Taubah read online

Surah Taubah read online
Surah Taubah read online

What is the main theme of surah al taubah?

One of the greatest themes of surah taubah is that:

  • Defining the relationship of Muslims with their enemies, especially at the end of the era of prophecy, surah tauba focused on three enemies:
  1. The polytheists and that is in verses 1-37, Allah Almighty commanded to abandon the covenant of the Muslims with those of the Arab polytheists who didn’t fulfill his covenant, and he fulfilled the covenant of the one who fulfilled his covenant to its term and gave those who traveled on the earth four months, and they were informed of that on the Day of Resurrection.

The greatest pilgrimage, but the context of the noble verses clarified that the polytheists have neither a covenant nor a patrimony. And that they are immoral people who don’t fulfill their vows, then the verses mentioned that if they repent, perform prayer and pay zakat, they will become brothers of Muslims, and if they break their oaths and attack Muslims, they must be fought, especially for their attempt to expel the Messenger -peace be upon him – from Makkah al-Mukarramah before he emigrated from it, and that they started fighting from it.

Muslims were unjustly and aggressively, and polytheists were prevented from building the Grand Mosque;  Because the most deserving of its construction are the believers, and the verses instructed the Muslims that disavowal of the polytheists includes not taking their fathers and brothers for guardians if they are polytheists.

  1. The warriors of the Jews and Christians: Al taubah is commanded to accept the tribute from the peaceable among them, and to fight the rebels by paying it.
  2. The hypocrites: surah Tawbah revealed the hypocrisy of the hypocrites, exposed their intentions, and ordered the Muslims to boycott them.
  • The Battles: surah toba mentioned the Battle of Tabuk, the Battle of Hunayn, and the repentance of Allah – the Highest – to whomever He willed from among the believers. Allah – the Highest – mentioned His victory for the believers in many places, including the day of Hunayn, when the Muslims were impressed by their large number, so it didn’t avail them anything, and the earth became narrow for them with what is welcomed. Then Allah – the Highest – sent down His tranquility on the Messenger – may Allah bless him and grant him peace – and those who were steadfast with him, and defeated their enemies.
  • Safety is obtained by the listener of the Holy Quran.
  • Preventing polytheists from entering the Holy Kaaba and the Sacred Mosque, and attending the Hajj season.
  • Blaming the Jews and revealing their words against the righteous man, Uzayr, and blaming their rabbis for unjustly eating people’s money, and invalidating the Christians’ saying about Jesus – peace be upon him.
  • Confirmation of the message of the truthful and righteous Messenger, and his departure with Abu Bakr – may Allah be pleased with him – from Makkah Al-Mukarramah to the cave of Thawr.
  • Clarifying the issue of those who are entitled to alms, and the punishment for those who refuse to pay zakat.
  • The hypocrites’ mockery of the Messenger, may peace be upon him, and the Holy Qur’an, their fear of participating in the Battle of Tabuk, their watching and waiting for the plight of the Muslims, reimbursement of their expenditures on them, and Allah’s denial of the hypocrites in their faith, and the Messenger, peace be upon him, forbade seeking forgiveness for the living among them. And about praying for their dead, Allah Almighty forbade His Prophet Ibrahim Al-Khalil from asking forgiveness for the polytheists.
  • The believers agree to one another, and they receive the approval of Allah – the Highest – because of that.
  • He mentioned the former immigrants and supporters, and he mentioned those who confess their shortcomings and the acceptance of the alms of their poor.
  • Accepting the repentance of the believers, and the repentance of those who did not leave the Battle of Tabuk.
  • Mention of building mosques in Islam; Like the Dirar Mosque, which was built for a corrupt purpose, and on the other hand, the Quba Mosque, which was built on obedience and piety.
  • Allah – the Highest – pledged allegiance to His faithful servants by buying themselves and their money, and He compensated them with that in Paradise.
  • Allah commanded people to seek knowledge and jurisprudence in religion.
  • The mercy of the Messenger – may Allah bless him and grant him peace – and his mercy on his nation, and commanded him to rely on Allah.

When was surah taubah revealed?

Surah at taubah was revealed in the ninth year after the Hijrah after the Battle of Tabuk, in which the story of the three companions who succeeded the Messenger – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him – was mentioned in that battle. He said:: (The last verse that was revealed is the verse of al-Kalalah, and the last surah was revealed as Bara’ah), and in a narration: (The last surah that was revealed in full: taubah surah, and that the last verse was revealed is the verse of al-Kalalah).

It is possible that he means that surah e taubah is the last complete Surah of the long chapters that were revealed to the Messenger of Allah – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him – because of the hadith of Anas – may Allah be pleased with him:  He passed away until he died, and most of the revelations took place on the day the Messenger of Allah – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him – died), It proves that the last year in which the Messenger lived – and the Prophet – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – was more than that which was revealed to him by the Prophet – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him. It was the most Sunnah that was revealed to him, as in Surah Al-Nasr, which referred to the term of the Messenger – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him – and nothing like that is mentioned in At-Tawbah.

Why was surah taubah revealed?

Surah at taubah is like any madian surah in terms of its revelation. Each group of its verses has a separate reason for its revelation, but in the generality of its verses it talks about Allah’s innocence of the polytheists and the infidels and His wrath upon them, and some of what came about the reasons for the revelation of taubah surah are the following:

  • The reason for the revelation of the first verses of surah e taubah is due to the fact that the infidels and polytheists had broken their covenants with the Noble Prophet and his companions, and it was like giving permission to fight them, Allah was saying:

{وَإِن نَّكَثُوا أَيْمَانَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ عَهْدِهِمْ وَطَعَنُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ فَقَاتِلُوا أَئِمَّةَ الْكُفْرِ ۙ إِنَّهُمْ لَا أَيْمَانَ لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَنتَهُونَ}.

  • It was narrated from the people of interpretation that after they captured Al-Abbas in the battle of Badr, they were blaming him for cutting the ties of kinship and fighting him, the Messenger of Allah. He replied to them by saying: “Why do you not mention our equals and not our virtues?” Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said to him: “Do you have merits?” He said: “Yes, we will live in the Sacred Mosque, we will cover the Kaaba, we will water the pilgrim, and we will relieve the afflicted.” So the saying of the Highest was revealed:

{مَا كَانَ لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يَعْمُرُوا مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ شَاهِدِينَ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِم بِالْكُفْرِ}

  • As for the noble verses:

{وَعَلَى الثَّلَاثَةِ الَّذِينَ خُلِّفُوا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا ضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ أَنفُسُهُمْ وَظَنُّوا أَن لَّا مَلْجَأَ مِنَ اللَّهِ إِلَّا إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ لِيَتُوبُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ}

It was revealed in “Ka’b bin Malik, Mararah bin Al-Rabee’ and Hilal bin Umayyah.” These three failed the battle of Tabuk without an excuse to prevent them, so the Messenger of Allah interrupted them and ordered all Muslims to boycott them as a punishment for them, when the earth narrowed them down with what it welcomed, and they asked Allah for forgiveness, He forgave them and repented of them.

Where was surah taubah revealed?

It has been proven that surah At-Tawbah was revealed in Medina in more than one narration, surah al taubah is one of the madian surahs, and the number of its verses is one hundred and twenty-nine verses, and it was reported on the authority of Ibn Abbas – may Allah be pleased with him – that it was revealed after the conquest of Mecca.

Why the surah was named At-Tawbah?

Surah At-Tawbah was named by At-Tawbah because of what was mentioned in it of Allah’s repentance to the Muhajireen and Ansar, and those who followed the Messenger – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him – in the hour of hardship, and his repentance to the three companions who succeeded the Messenger – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him– in Battle of Tabuk, Allah said :

(لَقَد تابَ اللَّـهُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ وَالمُهاجِرينَ وَالأَنصارِ الَّذينَ اتَّبَعوهُ في ساعَةِ العُسرَةِ مِن بَعدِ ما كادَ يَزيغُ قُلوبُ فَريقٍ مِنهُم ثُمَّ تابَ عَلَيهِم إِنَّهُ بِهِم رَءوفٌ رَحيمٌ* وَعَلَى الثَّلاثَةِ الَّذينَ خُلِّفوا حَتّى إِذا ضاقَت عَلَيهِمُ الأَرضُ بِما رَحُبَت وَضاقَت عَلَيهِم أَنفُسُهُم وَظَنّوا أَن لا مَلجَأَ مِنَ اللَّـهِ إِلّا إِلَيهِ ثُمَّ تابَ عَلَيهِم لِيَتوبوا إِنَّ اللَّـهَ هُوَ التَّوّابُ الرَّحيمُ).

What para is surah taubah in?

Surah Tawbah is located in the eleventh part, the nineteenth, twenty, and twenty-first hizp, specifically the first, second, and third quarters, surah al taubah is preceded in the order of the surahs of the Noble Qur’an by Surah Al-Anfal, followed by Surat Yunus.

The number of verses of surah at taubah is one hundred and twenty-nine, which is the ninth chapter of the one hundred and fourteenth chapter of the Noble Qur’an, and taubah surah was revealed after Surat Al-Ma’idah.

Is surah al taubah makki or madani?

Yes, surah toba is Madani, except for two verses in which there is the verse one hundred and twenty-eight, and the verse one hundred and twenty-nine, which is one of the only hundred surahs of the Medinan surahs.

Surah taubah benefits

Surah At-Tawbah has several virtues that a Muslim can apply to his practical life so that he is as close as possible to complying with the Qur’anic approach, including:

  1. Abandoning the burdens of religion brings the wrath of Allah Almighty, so the Muslim is keen to do what he can, even if it is the smallest thing, to fulfill the right of calling to the religion of Allah Almighty.
  2. Being lazy to support the religion of Allah Almighty is only a clear sign of hypocrisy in the heart, so the Muslim is keen to monitor his behavior and stay away from hypocrisy by supporting Allah’s religion and making his word supreme.
  3. Securing the polytheist in the lands of Islam is a means of spreading safety, so the Muslim strives not to break the trust of the trustee so that peace prevails, and trade and benefits are exchanged between different countries.
  4. Giving the right of freedom of religion to those who looked at Islam, may he become Muslim in the coming days and Allah will guide him with his mercy and grace.
  5. Realizing that Islam is a religion of strength and pride, the Muslim is proud of his religion and doesn’t allow any cynic to encroach on the sanctities of his religion.
  6. Heaviness and giving preference to the worldly life and its enjoyment over the supremacy of the word of religion is a fundamental reason for the defeat of the nation by the enemies of Islam, the Muslim is keen to uphold the word of religion, and to prioritize religion over worldly goods.
  7. Allah – the Highest – has ensured the support of his religion and his messenger, so the Muslim – especially the one who preaches – is assured that following the approach of Allah Almighty and the approach of His Noble Messenger will be the result of victory and support from Allah Almighty.

How to memorize surah al taubah?

Surah At-Tawbah is one of the seven long surahs, but in the end, you can memorize al taubah by following the mental map of surah e taubah, which is as follows:

Surah at taubah is one of the Madani surahs, and the number of its verses is one hundred and twenty-nine, about the Hypocrisy scandal.

From 1 to 6: about the disavowal of the covenants of the polytheists and the provisions of their treatment.

From 7 to 15: about the characteristics of the polytheists and their dealings with the believers.

From 16 to 19: about the exhortation to jihad and the construction of mosques.

From 20 to 22: about the virtue and reward of the Mujahideen.

From 23 to 24: about the Prohibition of taking over the infidels.

From 25 to 27: about Allah’s grace over the believers in victory.

From 28 to 33: about the Prohibition of polytheists entering the Sacred Mosque and fighting them.

From 34 to 35: aboutThe rabbis of the people’s money and their punishment.

From 36 to 37: about The sacred months and the polytheists’ manipulation of them.

From 38 to 41: about The command to wage jihad and the reminder of Allah’s victory.

From 42 to 59: about Exposing the hypocrites.

Verse 60: about The eight people of zakat.

From 61 to 72: about Attributes and Reward for Hypocrites and Believers.

From 73 to 102: about The Command to Jihad and Types of Hypocrites and Apologies.

From 103 to 112: about The Chapter on Charity, Repentance and Profitable Trade.

From 113 to 116: about Prohibition of Repentance for the Pagans.

From 117 to 119: about May Allah forgive the people of the Battle of Tabuk.

From 120 to 123: about The virtue of the people of Medina and the virtue of knowledge.

From 124 to 127: about The position of the believers and the position of the hypocrites regarding the revelation of taubah surah.

From 128 to 129: about Some characteristics of the Prophet peace be upon him.

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Dua in surah taubah

1.((حَسْبِيَ اللَّهُ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَهُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ)).

Verse: 129 surah e taubah.

Dua in surah taubah
Dua in surah taubah

A blessed supplication that Allah Almighty commanded the Prophet of Mercy to say if those who oppose him turn away from him with the truth, guidance and the straight path that has come to them, and do not accept advice from him, nor the true exhortation to seek Allah’s help for them in supplication, and reliance on Him.

The merit of this Dua:

Who said every day in the morning and in the evening, Seven times, Allah Almighty sufficed him for the most important matters of this world and the hereafter.

Hadith on surah at taubah

With regard to surah toba, there is no authentic hadith of the Prophet in its merits, and what was mentioned in it does not go beyond being weak prophetic hadiths that scholars have noted, The scholar Al-Firouzabadi mentioned it in his book Insights of the Distinguished Persons in the Ta’if al-Kitab al-Aziz, and he cautioned that it is very weak.

As follows:

  1. On the authority of Aisha – may Allah be pleased with her – she said: The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, said: “Nothing was revealed to me in the Qur’an except verse by verse, and letter by letter, except for Surah Bara’ah(taubah surah) and Surah Al-Ikhlas for they were revealed, and with them were seventy thousand rows of angels, each saying, “Be kind to Allah in relation to Allah.”
  2. Whoever reads Surah Al-Anfal and surah at taubah will testify to him on the Day of Resurrection of innocence from polytheism and hypocrisy, and he will be given the number of every hypocrite and hypocrisy placed in Paradise, and it will be written for him like glorifying the Throne, and you will carry it until the Day of Resurrection.”
  3. O Ali, whoever recites Surah At-Tawbah, Allah accepts his repentance as it is accepted from Adam and David, and his supplications are answered, as he responded to Zakaria.

Surah taubah summary

Surah at taubah is one of the seven long surahs and Al-Mathani surahs, al taubah has 129 verses and surah e taubah is a madian surah.

Surah Tawbah declared that Allah and His Messenger are innocent of the actions of the polytheists and that Allah has authorized their fight by saying: {Innocence from Allah and His Messenger to those with whom you have covenanted with the polytheists and Allah Almighty, and between the truth and the Almighty.

With the warning of Muslims against the evil of the hypocrites and their temptation, and in the incident of the three whom the Messenger – may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him – and all Muslims turned away from, one of the themes of surah Toba, which is that the consequence of the one who turns away from the caller in the way of Allah, and who fails to fight jihad, will be severely punished in this world and the hereafter. Unless he repents and asks forgiveness, then Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Surah tauba is a statement that Muslims have complete faith in Allah’s decree and predestination and are certain that everything that may happen to them is with Allah’s knowledge and decree, that it is good for them, and that He is their protector and upon Him they say:

{قُل لَّن يُصِيبَنَا إِلَّا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوْلَانَا ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ}

And the emphasis on the oneness of Allah – the Exalted and Glorious – and that whoever says that he has a son or puts with him another god, such as the Jews and Christians, then Allah will fight them and that they will be the losers, and that is in his saying:

{وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ اللَّهِ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَى الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ اللَّهِ ۖ ذَٰلِكَ قَوْلُهُم بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۖ يُضَاهِئُونَ قَوْلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن قَبْلُ ۚ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ أَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ}

And emphasizing that the religion with Allah is Islam and that this is what all the prophets and messengers brought.